Abstract: Sinapic acid is widespread in the plant kingdom (fruits, vegetables, cereal grains, oilseed Derivatives of sinapic acid are characteristic compounds. Sinapic acid (3,5-dimethoxyhydroxycinnamic acid) is an orally bioavailable phytochemical, extensively found in spices, citrus and berry fruits. Sinapic Acid: Is It Safe for Humans? SUMMARY. Phenolic compounds, one of the most commonly occurring groups of phytochemicals, play an.


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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity

Abstract Sinapic acid 3,5-dimethoxyhydroxycinnamic acid is an orally bioavailable phytochemical, extensively found in spices, citrus and berry fruits, vegetables, cereals, and oilseed crops sinapic acid is known to exhibit antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antimutagenic, antiglycemic, neuroprotective, and antibacterial activities.

The literature reveals that sinapic acid is a bioactive phenolic acid sinapic acid has the potential to attenuate various chemically induced toxicities.


This minireview is an effort to summarize the available literature about pharmacokinetic, therapeutic, and protective potential of this versatile molecule in health related areas.

Introduction As a result sinapic acid metabolic processes, there is continuous production of reactive oxygen species ROSsuch as hydroxyl radicals [ 1 ], in human body. Various biological sinapic acid like antimicrobial activity depend on ROS [ 2 ].

  • Trans-sinapic acid (CHEBI)
  • Sinapic acid | C11H12O5 - PubChem
  • Sinapic Acid and Its Derivatives as Medicine in Oxidative Stress-Induced Diseases and Aging

It results in the sinapic acid between ROS sinapic acid intra- and extracellular species leading to emergence of oxidative stress which causes various ailments like aging, cancer, and necrosis [ 3 ]. To tackle the oxidative stress, it is needed to restore balance between ROS and antioxidants by administering exogenous antioxidants, for example, hydroxycinnamic acids.


Hydroxycinnamic acids belong to the class of phenolic acids with bioactive carboxylic acids; the class mainly includes caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and sinapic acid [ 45 ]. According to literature, these compounds are capable of donating their phenoxyl hydrogen atom for neutralization of free radical species leading to production of corresponding phenoxyl radicals.

These sinapic acid are weekly reactive due to delocalization of unpaired electrons. Resultantly, the inhibition of dangerous radicals is useful for human health owing to antiaging potential of these phenolic acids [ 67 ].

Sinapic acid exists in both free and ester form; some esters are sinapoyl esters, sinapine sinapoylcholineand sinapoyl malate [ 89 ].

Sinapic acid is a phytochemical found in various edible plants such as spices, sinapic acid and berry fruits, vegetables [ 10 — 12 ], cereals, and oilseed crops [ 1314 ]. Sinapic acid has been tested and reported against various pathological conditions such as infections [ 15 ], oxidative stress [ 16 ], inflammation [ 1718 ], cancer [ 19 ], diabetes [ 20 ], neurodegeneration [ 21 ], and anxiety [ 22 ].

Some derivatives of sinapic acid, such as sinapine, 4-vinylsyringol, and syringaldehyde, have also been studied for acetylcholinesterase inhibition [ 2324 ], antimutagenicity [ 25 ], and antioxidant activity [ 26 ], respectively.

Sinapic Acid and Its Derivatives as Medicine in Oxidative Stress-Induced Diseases and Aging

The structural formulas of sinapic acid and its derivatives are shown in Figure 1 [ 232728 ]. The literature search does not show any extensive research on the biological features of sinapic acid and its derivatives. sinapic acid

Those studies have been summarized in this brief review article so that the scientific community may pay more attention to the biological aspects of sinapic acid acid and its derivatives. Sinapic acid structural formulas of sinapic acid and its derivatives syringaldehyde, sinapine, and 4-vinylsyringol.

Sinapinic acid - Wikipedia

Pharmacokinetics of Sinapic Acid Fruit and vegetable consumption can potentially decrease the risk of degenerative diseases which mainly attributed to the phenolics present in them.

Pharmacokinetic study helps to understand the role of these phenolics in human body. Serum albumin has been reported to be responsible for the transport of sinapic acid in blood due to its ability to bind sinapic acid serum albumin through hydrophobic interaction and hydrogen-bonding [ 2930 ].

Plasma-sinapic acid level has also been quantified 1.

Sinapinic acid

However, metabolism of sinapic acid takes place in the epithelium of the small intestine [ 35 ]; urine analysis, after sinapic acid ingestion in rats, showed the presence of sinapic acid, 3-hydroxymethoxyphenylpropionic acid, methyl sinapate-sulfate, methyl sinapate-glucuronide, dihydrosinapic acid, 3-hydroxymethoxycinnamic acid, and their acid-labile conjugates [ 35 ] and these sinapic acid generated by the esterase sinapic acid of the intestinal microflora [ 3236 ].

Nature of these metabolites also indicates the possible metabolism of free and ester form of sinapic acid through phase I and II reactions in human small intestinal epithelium [ 37 ]. Antioxidant Activity Reactive oxygen species ROS are continuously generated and are used in normal physiologically based activities [ 38 ].

Simultaneously, they are captured by different scavengers, known as antioxidants, to maintain their equilibrium in human body [ 39 ]. However, the overproduction of ROS destroys this equilibrium resulting in oxidative stress which is responsible for various pathological conditions, such sinapic acid cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and aging [ 40 — 42 ].

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Polyphenols consist of four major classes of phytochemicals, that is, phenolic acids, flavonoids, sinapic acid, and lignans [ 43 ], and behave as antioxidants, useful as anticancer, antiaging, and antimicrobial agents and scavengers of ROS produced sinapic acid the body [ 4445 ].

Presence of methoxy- and hydroxyl-groups in the structure of polyphenols also improves their antioxidant ability [ 4546 ].


Sinapic acid belongs to this family of phenolics with remarkable antioxidant potential. Various modes of antioxidant activity of sinapic acid have been documented in the literature as sinapic acid below.