FIBER OPTICS NETWORKING PDF DOWNLOAD!
Fiber-optic technology in access networks is expanding due to the demand for broadband. Learn about FTTX and passive optical networking (PON) systems. Fiber Optic cables & connectors come in many different varieties. Learn about the most popular fiber optic connectors: ST, SC, MTP and LC. Fiber-optic networks have been used for decades to transmit large volumes of traffic across the country. The economics of fiber networks have only recently.
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Fiber-optic networks: Access network design
Planning for access network fiber optics networking deployment demands a careful consideration of the following: The demographics of the area to be served, including household income, family size, and age distribution.
This data is critical in establishing the service market opportunity. In general, favorable demographics justify deeper fiber deployment. The geography and topology of the service area, including the household density average lot sizethe rights of way available, and whether cabling is underground or above ground.
This data is critical to set the cost points for each approach. Obviously, poor characteristics here will create profit margin challenges if not taken fiber optics networking account.
What is fiber optics (optical fiber)? - Definition from
Similarly, fiber optics is frequently used in broadcasting and electronics to provide better connections and performance. Military and space industries also make use of optical fiber as means of communication and signal transfer, in addition to its ability fiber optics networking provide temperature sensing.
Fiber optic cables can be beneficial due to their lighter weight and smaller size.
Fiber optics is frequently used in a variety of medical instruments to provide precise illumination. It also increasingly enables biomedical sensors that aid in minimally invasive medical procedures.
Because optical fiber is not subject to electromagnetic interference, it is ideal for various tests like MRI scans. Other medical applications for fiber optics include X-ray imaging, endoscopy, light therapy and surgical microscopy.
This was last updated in April Continue Reading About fiber optics optical fiber. Telephone Networks Fiber optics networking networks were the first major users of fiber optics.
Fiber optic links were used to replace copper or digital radio links between telephone switches, beginning with long distance links, called long lines, where fiber's distance and bandwidth capabilities made fiber significantly more cost effective. Telcos use fiber to connect all their central offices and long distance switches because it has thousands of times the bandwidth of copper wire and can carry signals hundreds of times further before needing a repeater - making the cost of a phone connection over fiber only a few percent of the cost of the same connection on copper.
They even use fiber to connect cell phone towers to save limited radio spectrum. After long distance links were converted fiber optics networking fiber, telcos began replacing shorter links between switches with fiber, for example between switches in the same metropolitan area.
Today, practically all the telephone networks have been converted to fiber. Telcos and other groups are now running fiber right to the home, FTTH using low cost passive optical network PON systems that use splitters to share the cost of some fiber optic components among fiber optics networking many as 32 subscribers.
Even cell phone networks have fiber backbones. It's more efficient and less expensive than using precious wireless bandwidth for backbone connections. Cell phone towers with many antennas will have large cable trays or pedestals where fiber cables connect to the antenna electronics. The Internet The Internet has always been based on a fiber optic backbone.
It started as part of the telephone network which was then primarily voice but has become the largest communications network as data traffic has outgrown voice traffic. Now fiber optics networking telcos are moving their voice communications to Internet protocol IP for lower costs.
Fiber-optic networks: Access network design
CATV companies use fiber because it give them greater reliability and the opportunity to offer fiber optics networking services, like phone service and Internet connections. CATV used to have a terrible reputation for reliability, not really a problem with service fiber optics networking with network topology.
CATV uses very high frequency analog signals, up to 1 GHz, which has high attenuation over coax cable.